Guidelines for Authors

Authors must submit all manuscripts using the online submission and peer review system at https://www.editorialmanager.com/ajr.

Submission and peer review questions should be addressed to: [email protected]

Please refer to the description below of AJR's policy for flexible formatting for initial submissions.

General Information

The AJR publishes high-quality clinically oriented articles in all radiology subspecialties. The journal publishes a variety of article types, including original research, reviews, and editorials, covering a spectrum of interpretive and noninterpretive topics. Studies should be relevant to radiologists' clinical practice.

Submitted articles will first be assessed by editorial board members. Manuscripts will be evaluated with respect to novelty, impact, rigor, and suitability of the material for the journal's general radiology audience. The editorial board may render a final decision based on its evaluation of the submission or choose to send the manuscript for external peer review using a double-blind review process. External reviewers will be provided a 10-day window to complete their review to facilitate a rapid decision. A comprehensive technical check to ensure compliance with journal guidelines will be performed whenif a revision is requested from the authors. The Editor in Chief will issue the final acceptance for all articles.

Accepted articles are published as Accepted Manuscripts shortly after acceptance, at which time they receive a DOI and are available through PubMed. The Accepted Manuscript is later replaced by the article’s version of record, following the copyediting, typesetting, page layout, and proof review processes.

All journal content is made freely accessible 1 year after publication of the version of record. Select content is made freely accessible immediately at publication.

Article Types

Original Research

Systematic Review/Meta-Analysis

Review

Best Practices

Research Letter

Clinical Perspective

Viewpoint

Practice Pearl

AJR Viewbox

Trainee Essay

Leadership Essay

Letter to the Editor

Reply to Letter to the Editor

AJR Expert Panel Narrative Review

Point/Counterpoint

Editorial Comment

Beyond the AJR

Society-Endorsed Statement

Original Research

Hypothesis-based investigation that attempts to provide strong evidence as to the validity of the hypothesis. The manuscript is organized into four major sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Authors are referred to the AJR Author Guide for Original Research for further guidance regarding this article type.

Highlights: Organized into two sections: Key Finding (maximum 50-word summary of the study’s most important result, expressed using concrete content) and Importance (maximum 25-word summary of the importance of the Key Finding).

Abstract: Maximum 350 words, organized into six sections: Background, Objective, Methods, Results, Conclusion, and Clinical Impact.

Maximums: 4500 Words (Introduction through Discussion); 50 References (100 for articles in Evidence Synthesis and Decision Analysis section); 5 Tables; 7 Figures (15 total parts).

Supplemental Content allowed for additional description of methods, as well as for tables and figures beyond the maximums for the primary article (see below regarding submission guidelines).

Systematic Review/Meta-Analysis

Investigation of a defined clinical question based on a selection and synthesis of the available evidence, possibly with a statistical summary to aid the content synthesis. Articles should follow the PRISMA-Diagnostic Test Accuracy reporting guidelines, ensuring that the expected reporting items are included in each section of the abstract and main text. The manuscript is organized into four major sections: Introduction, Evidence Acquisition, Evidence Synthesis, and Discussion.

Highlights: Organized into two sections: Key Finding (maximum 50-word summary of the study’s most important result, expressed using concrete data) and Importance (maximum 25-word summary of the importance of the Key Finding).

Abstract: Maximum 350 words, organized into six sections: Background, Objective, Evidence Acquisition, Evidence Synthesis, Conclusion, and Clinical Impact.

Maximums: 4500 Words (Introduction through Discussion); 100 References; 5 Tables; 7 Figures (15 total parts)

Supplemental Content allowed for additional description of methods, as well as for tables and figures beyond the maximums for the primary article (see below regarding submission guidelines).

Review

Scholarly analysis of recent developments on a specific topic as reported in the literature. No new data are presented. Articles presenting personal experiences or opinions should be submitted as a Clinical Perspective or Viewpoint articles, respectively.

Highlights: Three bulleted key points (maximum 25 words per point) reflecting the article’s key messages.

Abstract: Maximum 200 words, unstructured.

Maximums: 4500 words; 100 References; 5 Tables; 12 Figures (30 total parts).

Best Practices

Review of the available evidence for an important clinical question that seeks to provide practice guidance. In comparison with traditional reviews, these articles (1) are more narrowly focused on a specific question (e.g. “what is the best imaging technique to evaluate right lower quadrant pain in a pregnant patient”) and (2) have a strong emphasis on evidence evaluation. Authors heavily probe, summarize, and synthesize the available evidence and may incorporate a formal meta-analysis. Critically, authors are asked to provide guidance in the absence of perfect information and to highlight gaps in evidence that call for additional research. The manuscript is organized into seven sections: (1) Clinical Vignette and Image(s), (2) The Imaging Question, (3) Background/Importance, (4) Synopsis and Synthesis of Evidence, (5) Evidence-Based Recommendations or Evidence-Based Guidelines, (6) Outstanding Issues That Warrant Research, and (7) Summary (which should be divided into two subsections, Recommendations for Best Practices and Recommendations for Further Research). The title of the article should begin with “Best Practices:”. For examples, please refer to the AJR Collection on Best Practices.

Highlights: Three bulleted key points (maximum 25 words per point) reflecting the article’s key messages.

Abstract: Maximum 200 words, unstructured.

Maximums: 4500 Words; 100 References; 5 Tables; 12 Figures (30 total parts).

Supplemental Content allowed for tables and figures beyond the maximums for the primary article (see below regarding submission guidelines).

Research Letter

Short article presenting original research based on a focused data set. These articles will generally present novel or exploratory findings that can be summarized more briefly than the investigations found in Original Research articles. The article is not organized into sections (i.e., no separate sections for Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion). However, the text should identify the study as retrospective or prospective, indicate the type of study performed (e.g., cross-sectional, case-control, randomized controlled trial); comment on HIPAA compliance, IRB approval, and informed consent; and identify study limitations.

Maximums: 700 Words; 6 References; Figures and Tables combined cannot exceed 2. Figures may contain up to 4 parts.

Supplemental Content allowed for additional description of methods and is permitted to include text, a single table (related to methods), and additional references (called out only within the supplemental text); may not include additional results, discussion, or figures.

Clinical Perspective

Description of the authors’ experience with a specific clinical subject. The text typically describes “how and/or why we do it.” Clinical Perspective articles should be written in a narrative fashion that structurally resembles Review articles but with limited analysis of the literature relative to what would be expected for Review articles, instead focusing on the authors’ practical experience. Clinical Perspective articles should not resemble Original Research articles; for example, they should not include Methods and Results sections or present findings in defined patient samples. Submissions reporting findings from research investigations should rather be submitted using the Original Research or Research Letter article types. Additionally, this is not an appropriate venue for a Case Report-type of article.

Highlights: One key point (maximum 25 words) reflecting the article's key message

Abstract: Maximum 200 words, unstructured.

Maximums: 4500 Words; 100 References; 3 Tables; 12 Figures (30 total parts).

Viewpoint

Short article addressing any matter of general interest to AJR readership. Topics may be interpretive or noninterpretive in nature (e.g., diversity, health equity, global health, education, artificial intelligence). May be used to express the author’s personal judgment on a controversial topic. Must fit within 2 pages in the laid-out version.

Abstract: Maximum 75 words, unstructured.

Maximums: 3 Authors; 1200 Words (1000 if including a table or figure); 7 References; 1 small table or figure allowed.

Practice Pearl

Description of a tool or trick of the trade, based on the authors' clinical experience. Submissions may address any aspect of radiology practice, including image acquisition, interpretation, and reporting, as well as noninterpretive areas such as reading room workflow or practice management. The article is organized into two sections: Challenge and Solution. This is not an appropriate venue for a Case Report-type of paper. Must fit within 2 pages in the laid-out version. Images must not have been previously published in any form. May include a video as supplemental content.

Maximums: 5 Authors; 400 Words; 2 References; 0 Tables; 2 Figures (4 total parts).

AJR Viewbox

Clinically useful high-quality radiologic depiction relevant to radiologists' practice. The case should be impactful for readers (e.g., demonstrating a common entity using a new imaging technique or illustrating an update in the understanding of an entity that is assessed by imaging). Rare or extreme case reports are not the primary focus of this manuscript type. Must fit on a single page in the laid-out version. Images must not have been previously published in any form. May include a video as supplemental content.

Maximums: 2 Authors; 150 Words; 2 References; 0 Tables; 1 Figure (3 total parts).

Trainee Essay

First-person narrative essay that relates a personal anecdote or experience during training in radiology and medicine and reflects on its meaning, impact, or lessons learned.

Maximums: 1 Author (must be a medical student, resident, or fellow); 700 Words; 3 References; 0 Tables; 0 Figures.

Leadership Essay

First-person narrative essay that relates a personal leadership experience or anecdote in radiology and medicine, and reflects on its meaning, impact, or lessons learned.

Maximums: 1 Author; 700 Words; 3 References; 0 Tables; 0 Figures.

Letter to the Editor/Reply to Letter

Constructive criticism of articles published in the AJR within the previous 2 months. Letters will rarely be considered if submitted later than 2 months after the article’s publication. Only data documented in published material should be included in the letter. Letters should not duplicate published material or be under consideration for publication elsewhere.

Maximums: 3 Authors (for replies to a letter, any or all of the authors of the original article may be authors of the reply); 400 Words; 4 References (in addition to references to the article being discussed and the letter if a reply); 0 Tables; 2 Figures (4 total parts).

AJR Expert Panel Narrative Review*

Review by experts from multiple institutions on a timely topic in the specialty. Although the review should be informed by available literature, the literature may be summarized in an unstructured format, in contrast with a systematic review or meta-analysis. The invited expert panel should provide a list of consensus statements or opinions at the conclusion of the review. The title of the article should end with “:AJR Expert Panel Narrative Review”. By invitation only.

Abstract: Maximum 200 words, unstructured

Maximums: 4500 Words; 100 References; 5 Tables; 12 Figures (30 total parts).

Point/Counterpoint*

Expert commentaries debating a controversial clinical issue. By invitation only.

Maximums (per side): 2 Authors; 1000 Words; 6 References; 0 Tables; 1 Figure (2 total parts), which must be radiologic images (not graphs or charts)

Editorial Comment*

Brief commentary for Original Research and Review articles, provided by an individual who participated in the article’s external peer review. By invitation only.

Maximums: 1 Author; 300 Words; 3 References (in addition to a reference to the article being discussed); 0 Tables; 0 Figures.

Beyond the AJR*

Critique of a radiology-related investigation appearing outside of the peer-reviewed radiology literature. The article is organized into three sections: Summary of the Investigation, Critical Analysis, and Takeaway Point (a single-sentence summary of the investigation’s impact for radiologists). By invitation only.

Maximums: 2 Authors; 600 Words; 5 References; 0 Tables; 0 Figures.

Society-Endorsed Statement

Guideline, consensus statement, or other special report that originates from a specialty society or comparable entity. The article should address a topic of current importance in the field, be evidence-based, and express an opinion or stance on the matter. The submission must be accompanied by a letter from the society board or other appropriate body that endorses the work.

Abstract: Maximum 200 words, unstructured.

Highlights: Three bulleted key points (maximum 25 words per point) reflecting the statement's key messages.

Maximums: 4500 Words; 100 References; 5 Tables; 12 Figures (30 total parts). The editorial board may allow a larger number of manuscript elements, if deemed appropriate for the specific statement.

General Guidelines for All Submissions

  • For initial submission, the manuscript should be blinded so as to not reveal the authors’ identity. Authors’ names and affiliations should not appear anywhere in the manuscript text or images. Redact authors’ initials within the Methods section.
  • References should not be redacted as this may indirectly identify the authors and thereby unblind the work. References to the authors’ earlier work should be provided in the third person (e.g., “as shown by an earlier investigation”) and maintain the full citation rather than being described in the first person (e.g., “as shown in an earlier study by our group”) with a redacted citation.
  • Authors will be asked in Editorial Manager if there are any publications, including manuscripts accepted or under review, that might be regarded as very similar to the submission or that may have overlap in patient cohort with the submission. In the event of prior similar work or an overlapping patient cohort, the authors will be asked to explain the nature of the overlap. The Methods section of the manuscript should cite the overlapping work and explain the difference between the prior and current studies. PDFs of overlapping publications should be uploaded with the submission.
  • All submissions are processed automatically through Similarity Check. Authors will need to appropriately address any duplicative content before acceptance.
  • Authors will be asked in Editorial Manager to provide a copy of any prior abstract or presentation on which the submission is based.
  • Preprints: Material that has been posted on a preprint server (e.g., medRxiv) can be submitted to AJR. If the work has been posted as a preprint, authors must provide the preprint DOI link at the time of submission. If the work is accepted by AJR, the preprint posting must be updated to include the DOI and URL link for the published AJR article. Authors may not post the published article or any interim versions produced during the peer review process on the preprint server.
  • Generative AI: Authors must disclose the use of large language models or other generative AI technologies in the manuscript’s preparation, including specific details regarding the relevant manuscript content, the particular technology applied (including name, version number, and manufacturer), and the manner in which the technology was used to create the content. Authors are responsible for any submitted materials created by generative AI technologies, including ensuring the accuracy of such material, the absence of plagiarism, and the appropriate attribution of sources.
  • Accelerated review pathway: For imaging-related manuscripts rejected after undergoing peer review by select leading general medical journals (NEJM, Lancet, JAMA, BMJ, or Annals of Internal Medicine), authors may include a copy of the earlier decision letter and peer reviews when submitting the manuscript to AJR. The submission should include a statement that such materials are provided in their entirety and without alteration. We will aim to use these reviews to provide a rapid decision. At the discretion of the editorial board, additional reviews may be solicited.

Copyright and Permissions

  • The online submission system provides an option for uploading permission documents. Guidance regarding needed documentation will be provided during the revision process. All copyright- and permission-related issues must be resolved before acceptance.
  • Material that is reproduced exactly from published material requires the copyright holder’s permission to reproduce the material in electronic media. Examples include figures, tables, abstracts of prior presentations, appendixes, and quoted material of more than 50 words from a single source. Material that is not reproduced exactly but that is substantially similar to published material requires the copyright holder’s permission to adapt or modify in electronic media. For reprinted or adapted materials, the originally published version should be provided in addition to the permission documentation.
  • For material created by a nonauthor that has not been published, including artwork and photographs, documentation is required from the nonauthor that identifies the material, states that the nonauthor holds its copyright, and states that ARRS has permission to publish the material in electronic media. If the nonauthor is not the copyright holder, documentation from the copyright holder is required.
  • For material created by an author that has not been published, including artwork and photographs, copyright will be transferred to the ARRS as part of the submission process, and separate permission documentation is not needed. However, attestation is required identifying the author as the creator of the material and stating that the material is original to the manuscript (i.e., has not been previously published, and no other person or entity can claim copyright to the material).
  • Written or oral communications from nonauthors require written permission from the source of the communication.
  • Names or other identifying information should not appear anywhere in any image or video. If any person is identifiable in an image or video, written consent from the person or their legal representative must be supplied before acceptance. No brands, product logos, or institutional logos should appear in any image or video. Artists’ names included in images should be obscured during the peer review process.

Authorship

  • All authors must fulfill all criteria for authorship as described by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Guidelines for Defining the Role of Authors and Contributors. The corresponding author attests to the criteria during the submission process. All coauthors receive an email with a link to a page in which they must attest to fulfilling these criteria.
  • All authors must have approved the submitted manuscript and are deemed accountable for its contents.
  • To add, remove, or change the order of authors after execution of the Copyright Transfer and Author Certification Agreement, the corresponding author must provide an explanation for the reason for the change; all coauthors will receive an email from the journal office to confirm their consent to the change. Adding or removing coauthors, or changing the order of authors, is not allowed after acceptance.

Initial Submissions: Flexible Formatting

  • Initial submissions may be organized using any reasonable scientific format (e.g., Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion). The format is flexible, and initial submissions do not need to be in full compliance with journal guidelines. Manuscripts must be properly formatted if a revision is requested.
  • For initial submissions, tables and figures may be incorporated into the text rather than placed at the end of the manuscript.
  • For initial submissions, providing the complete author list in the title page Word document is sufficient. Only the corresponding author's information needs to be entered into the author list in the online submission system. If a revision is requested, all coauthor information needs to be entered in the online submission system when submitting the revision.

Revisions

  • Revisions must be submitted through the online peer review system and include the following files:
  • A point-by-point detailed response to the Editors and/or reviewers’ comments, submitted as an MS Word document. Responses should be preceded by the reviewer and comment number (e.g., “Rev 2, Comment 4”) and the text of the reviewer comment.
  • An annotated copy of the revised manuscript with changes tracked or highlighted. Changes should be identified by the reviewer number and comment number in the margins or in the text to make it clear to the Editors and/or reviewers which comment the change is addressing
  • A clean unannotated version of the revised manuscript (without any embedded figures)
  • All figures must be uploaded as individual TIFF or PNG files (even if there are no changes or revisions to the figures)
  • Revisions not adhering to the applicable article type will be returned to the authors to be corrected. Revisions are expected to adhere to such limits after incorporating any content requested by reviewers or editors.

Manuscript Organization

The manuscript is organized as follows: full title page, highlights (when required for the article type), abstract (when required for the article type), main manuscript text, references, tables, figure legends, and figures. Aside from the full title page (and figures for revisions) and supplemental content (if any), all of these components (including highlights and abstract, when required) should be submitted as a single Microsoft Word document. Pages must be numbered consecutively beginning with the abstract. Do not use line numbering.

Full Title Page

A separate Microsoft Word document that will not be included in the PDF that goes to the reviewers that contains:

  • Title of article
  • Type of article (i.e., article category)
  • Names, academic degrees, email addresses, telephone numbers, complete institutional addresses (including zip code), and X/Twitter handles (if available) of all authors and coauthors with one corresponding author clearly identified. Co-corresponding authors are not allowed. The Full Title Page is the primary source used when determining the final author order at manuscript acceptance.
  • Present affiliations of authors who have moved since the study was completed
  • Funding sources (from grants and other sources)
  • Author disclosures, listed individually. If there are no disclosures, that fact must be explicitly stated.

References

  • References are numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text.
  • All references are cited in the text. Reference numbers are enclosed in brackets and are typed on line with the text (not superscripted).
  • Authors are responsible for the accuracy of cited references.
  • Citations from internet sources should provide the name of the author(s), the title of the web page, the URL, the page’s original publication or creation date, and the date the page was accessed.
  • Cited journal articles are retrievable (i.e., published online or in print). Do not cite manuscripts in preparation, under review or revision, or accepted but not yet published in some form.
  • Personal communications are not cited in the reference list but are cited parenthetically in the text, for example: (Smith DJ, written communication, 2023).
  • Papers presented at a meeting are not cited in the reference list but are cited parenthetically in the text, for example: (Smith DJ, et al., presented at the 2003 annual meeting of the American Roentgen Ray Society). After first mention, use (Smith DJ, et al., 2003 ARRS meeting)
  • Style and punctuation of references follow the format illustrated in the following examples. All authors are listed when six or fewer; when seven or more authors, the first three are listed, followed by et al. Inclusive page numbers (e.g., 333–335) are given for all references. Journal names are abbreviated according to Index Medicus.

Journal article

1. Long RS, Roe EW, Wu EU, et al. Membrane oxygenation: radiographic appearance. AJR 1986; 146:1257–1260

Book

2. Smith LW, Cohen AR. Pathology of tumors, 6th ed. Williams & Wilkins, 1977:100–109

Chapter in a book

3. Breon AJ. Serum monitors of bone metastasis. In: Clark SA, ed. Bone metastases. Williams & Wilkins, 1983:165–180

Tables

  • Tables should be included at the end of the manuscript MS Word file, following the References, and be in an editable format. Embedded images of tables, tables in MS Excel (.xls) format, and links to tables in other applications, are all not allowed.
  • Each table has a short, descriptive title, and each column has a heading
  • Tables do not exceed two pages in length and must contain at least two columns and at least two rows (in addition to the header rows).
  • Tables are numbered in the order in which they are cited in the text. Each table should have a discrete number. Numbering tables as 1A and 1B is not allowed and is counted as two tables for total number of tables
  • Abbreviations are defined in an explanatory note below each table
  • Figures should NOT be embedded in table cells as these will not display correctly in the laid-out article.

Figures and Figure Legends

  • Legends use AJR style: Fig. 1—47-year-old patient with rheumatoid arthritis. For images depicting a person, supply age, medical condition or diagnosis, and sex, if relevant.
  • All figure parts relating to one patient should have the same figure number. Each image is considered a single part when counting total number of figure parts.
  • Electronic manipulation of images that materially alters the medical information must be identified and the nature of the alterations described.

Figure Files

Original Submission

  • For the original submission, figures must be embedded in the MS Word document, at the conclusion of the manuscript following the References and any Tables.
  • Figure legends should be directly above or below the corresponding image.

Revisions

  • For revisions, the files must be submitted as separate TIFF or PNG files. Other formats (e.g., JPEG, GIF, PowerPoint) or lower resolutions will not be usable.
  • Submit a separate file for each figure part, using the following naming convention: Figure_01a.tif, Figure_01b.tif, Figure_02a.tif, etc
  • Image size: All images should be no more than 5 inches in height or width.
  • Black & white images: TIFF format, Grayscale mode, 300 DPI resolution, no layered files, no alpha channels, no color profiles assigned
  • Color images: 300 DPI resolution, no layered files, no alpha channels, color profile if used: CMYK (no Indexed color, Lab, or RGB profiles)
  • Line art: 1200 DPI resolution, Grayscale or Bitmap mode, no layered files, no alpha channels, color profile if used: CMYK (no Indexed color, Lab, or RGB profiles)

Supplemental Content

  • For all article types other than Original Research, Systematic Review/Meta-Analysis, and Best Practices, supplemental content is limited to video files or content not otherwise suitable for inclusion in the primary article; for Research Letter, the supplement may contain additional materials related to the methods, as set out in the Research Letter description.
  • All supplemental Methods, Tables, and Figures must be provided within a SINGLE MS Word file. This file should first contain the supplemental Methods (labeled Supplemental Methods), then all of the supplemental Tables (labeled Table S1, Table S2, Table S3, etc.), followed by all of the supplemental Figures (labeled Figure S1, Figure S2, Figure S3, etc.). The supplemental Methods as well as all supplemental Tables and Figures must be called out in the manuscript text.
  • The supplemental Methods, Tables, and Figures may cite additional references that are not cited in the primary article. These references should be numbered S1, S2, S3, etc., in the order in which they appear in the supplement, with full citation information provided in a Supplemental References section at the conclusion of the supplement.
  • The Supplemental Content will undergo external peer review along with the rest of the manuscript. For accepted manuscripts, the Supplemental Content will be made available without any further corrections, copyediting, or layout by the journal. A statement will be inserted at the start of the Supplement indicating that the Supplemental Content is in the form originally provided by the authors. The authors therefore will be accountable for such material’s accuracy.

Procedure for Editor Conflict of Interest

  • Editors with a conflict of interest for a submitted manuscript will be recused from the manuscript's handling, and an alternate editor will oversee the manuscript during the peer review process and render a decision. An independent consulting editor-at-large will handle manuscripts for which the relevant editorial board members all have conflicts of interest.